蒙特梭利教育與在家進行蒙特梭利/ Montessori Education and Montessori at Home
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瑪麗亞·蒙特梭利（Maria Montessori）於1870年出生於意大利。 1896年，蒙特梭利成為有史以來第一位獲得醫學學位的意大利女性之一。
瑪麗亞·蒙特梭利（Maria Montessori）通過觀察和分析進行了深入研究，並開發了一種教學方法，為兒童發展帶來了令人難以置信的成果。她於1907年在羅馬建立了自己的第一所"兒童之家"（Casa dei Bambini），並於1909年提供了她的第一門培訓課程。蒙特梭利方法的成功遍及世界，而瑪麗亞·蒙特梭利也對其獨特的，以孩子為中心的教育方式進行了廣泛的演講，建立學校並培養教育工作者和研究人員。
蒙特梭利教育與其他方法的區別是什麼？（信息來源：Associate Montessori Internationale）
如何在家中進行蒙特梭利教學？ （來源：American Montessori Society）
Who is Montessori?
Maria Montessori was born in 1870, in Italy. In 1896 Montessori became one of the first Italian women ever to obtain a medical degree.
Maria Montessori worked in depth research with observation and analysis, and developed a pedagogical approach which resulted in incredible outcomes for children development. She established the first of her "Casa dei Bambini" (children's house) in Rome in 1907 and delivered her first training course in 1909. The success of the Montessori method spread throughout the world and Montessori travelled and lectured extensively on her unique, child centred approach, establishing schools and a loyal following of educators and researchers.
What distinguishes Montessori education from other approaches? (source: Associate Montessori Internationale)
Montessori acknowledges that children have an innate desire to learn, and what they require is an environment to enable that learning to take place.
It supports the scientific knowledge that there are four phases of human development: birth to six, 6-12, 12-18 and 18 to 24. It defines its educational approach along these phases of development.
Montessori classrooms are made up of mixed age groups, enabling children to learn from others as well as learn by helping each other.
Children have the freedom to work at their own pace, choosing from a range of activities which are developmentally challenging and appropriate.
Children are encouraged to explore, so that they find things out for themselves, make mistakes and correct them independently.
Respect is given to each child for its individual personality, as well as respect for others, their community and the environment.
It is an approach which acknowledges that children are innately interested in the world around them, and with the right guidance, are able to develop themselves.
How can I apply Montessori at home? (source: American Montessori Society)
Having a place for everything, on a child-friendly scale, means that children know where to find what they need, and have a place to put things when they're done. An ordered environment also has fewer distractions, allowing children to focus on the task at hand.
Simplifying your home environment enables your child to understand what is expected of her. With your support, encouragement, and consistent, gentle reminders, even toddlers are capable of returning items to their rightful places.
For example, limiting toy choices and providing open shelves (instead of toy boxes where toys are heaped in a pile) at your child's eye level allows her to see all of her choices and return objects to their correct places. Sorting smaller items, such as puzzles, art supplies, and blocks by category into trays or baskets makes them accessible and your child can easily put them away.
Keeping extra toys in storage to be swapped out when you observe your child growing tired or bored with the items currently available will keep her interested in playing with new and familiar favorites, and ensure a space that is not only neat and tidy, but also highly valued and cared for.
Bedrooms for children of all ages should be free of clutter with clearly designated places for rest, self-care, and dressing.
To nurture independence and self-esteem, furniture for young ones should be child-sized and accessible. For example, a closet with low-hanging clothes and limited choices. Bedroom space should provide a place to sleep, play, and work, and should allow your child to feel ownership of her own space.
Welcoming young children into the kitchen is one of the easiest ways to support your child's growing independence at home. A stool placed near the countertop will invite help with washing dishes or food preparation.
If there's enough space in your kitchen, consider a table and chairs that are child-sized, so that your young one can take part in meal preparation, sit comfortably for snacks, and clean up easily. Consider using quality silverware, dishware, and other kitchen utensils that are appropriately sized for your child, as opposed to plastic "toy" kitchen items, that allow her to learn proper use of "real" objects for mealtime and food preparation. For example, using a child-sized pitcher and small drinking glass allows your child to pour water when she is thirsty, teaches her to exercise care using real dishes, and supports her growing autonomy in taking care of her needs.
The key is including children in your family's day-to-day activities at home-whether they are toddlers or teens--as an expectation from the very beginning.
The Prepared Adult: In the classroom, the teacher is the prepared adult. At home, it's you.
Take time to observe your child at home, without interfering in her activity. Is she able to maintain a reasonable level of order? Are materials put away in their designated places? If not, you, as a parent-like the Montessori teacher-should consider the child's environment: Are there too many choices? Are the choices available no longer interesting or challenging? Is it difficult for your child to put items away properly?
The ability to focus and concentrate is an important skill for learning. You can help develop your child's concentration at any age by observing what sparks her interest and providing opportunities to pursue it. Set her up with the materials to explore what has piqued her interest, and let her work without interruption until she is ready to choose another activity.
Model, Invite & Practice
Modeling to successfully manage household tasks and providing assisted practice.
For young children, rather than labeling shelf spaces to signal where items go, demonstrate to your child an object's proper place and practice putting it away with her. You may need to demonstrate a new skill a few times, but soon your child will have memorized the routine and mastered it herself-and she will take great pride in being able to do it on her own.
Based on your observations, make changes to the environment to ensure your child's success, interest, and independence. For older children, work together and include them in the decision-making process. Give choices, but be sure that you are comfortable with all of the available options, so you support the child no matter what choice is made.
Practice Real-Life Skills
Montessori students learn to take care of themselves and their classroom and to be helpful to others. They wash tables, organize shelves, prepare meals, and assist younger children. In addition to the satisfaction of mastering real-life skills, they come to see themselves as valued members of the community.
Creating an environment that encourages your child help at home can bring similar rewards. Young children can peel vegetables, fold their clothes, match their socks, and care for pets.
Nurture Inner Motivation
Children are most willing to apply themselves when they feel there is intrinsic value to their work. Some parents use external rewards such as an allowance, gold stars, and merit-based privileges. But Montessori is based on the belief that pride and pleasure in one's own work has lasting, and meaningful, effects that external incentives do not. In the Montessori perspective, even praise is given sparingly-saved to acknowledge a child's effort and encourage dedication and commitment to accomplishing a task, rather than the outcome of her work.
By expressing encouragement and appreciation for your children's efforts at home, you will help nurture an inner motivation that will serve them for life.